In 2028, European labor markets are likely to look quite different than they do today. Technological trends such as digitization and the advent of online job platforms are colliding with long-term demographic and cultural shifts to reshape how and where work is performed, and by whom. The gig economy is growing, offering new opportunities for flexible work, while traditional, stable employer-employee relationships are becoming more rare.
This report examines the key forces shaping the future of work in Europe, before sketching a set of possible scenarios for how these factors may affect jobs, welfare and education systems, public services, and immigrant integration. In doing so, the authors highlight how the investments needed to ready all workers for these changes mirror closely those needed to help newly arrived immigrants enter work; programs that help people retrain and update their skills, for example, promise to benefit both native- and foreign-born workers. Crucially, the analysis points to promising innovations to help workers build resilience and to help policymakers navigate the changes to come.