very much agree with my colleague from Africa here If you criticize other nations for violations of human rights it means you accept human rights and other people will urge you to look at your home situation It is quite an exciting development that Muslims in Turkey are now also protesting against the Chinese government and their imprisoning of one Million Uyghurs in Xinjiang while the Turkish govern ment is not exactly famous for protect ing human rights in its own country It is important that we keep this political debate going as it is helpful to make clear that at least we all accept human rights and the criteria for human dignity Kaleck I agree completely with my two colleagues The line of division is not between North and South it is a division between classes and between different sectors of society between those who want to enforce human rights and those who disregard them There is a discussion that has surfaced about the supposed erosion of human rights and some people are suggest ing that the nation states should now protect human rights whereas I would propose that those actors who stand for human rights in a lawful way these can be state actors but in most cases they will be civil society actors NGOs and courageous individuals that these actors should build up coalitions and networks all across the world Still it is often the so called West ern nations that criticize others for not respecting universal human rights Ms Sowa do those nations actually live up to their own moral standards Sowa I sometimes suspect that it s politicians all over the world who don t live up to their statements about human rights I have difficulties believing nation states in particular and sometimes private sector organi zations within particular nation states act with real integrity Because if they did they would not only criticize violations in other countries but they would be criticizing those violations in their own countries and they would be taking action to counter that Mr Shi do you agree that in interna tional politics human dignity is mainly a political means and hardly an end in itself Shi Of course it is also a political instrument It is a common phenome non around the world that politicians use very different narratives including narratives of human rights and human dignity to mobilize groups and reach their political goals and they have never been very consistent in doing so However I don t think it s very helpful to criticize the instrumental ization of these narratives in general because if we do that we end up criticizing almost all politicians Another question is what this instrumentalization looks like and I The line of division is drawn between those who want to enforce human rights and those who disregard them Wolfgang Kaleck Can we find a concrete definition or translation of human dignity that could work as a fundamental value for everyone around the globe Kaleck As a lawyer I can refer to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights but obviously it s only a starting point because when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights says All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights that s a promise that has yet to be fulfilled Shi One of various essential elements to define human dignity is life but not just life itself also love of life Because you can deprive someone of the love of life we can force somebody to hate their lives or hate the lives of others Forcing individuals to kill or to denounce their relatives wasn t a rare phenomenon in human history often enough just in order to humiliate that individual by disregarding his human dignity I think it is a general principle shared by all of the cultures and by all of the civilizations that the love of life or towards life is to be respected Sowa For me it all comes down to respect Respect for individuals for cultures for ways of being And if we are able to respect people s right to life and people s right to a quality of life then we can look at human dignity across cultures I believe very strongly that notions of human dignity across cultures countries and groupings of people are actually very similar And it is because our notions of human dignity are so similar that people or institutions then revert to making certain groups of people different less human and therefore less deserving of our definitions of human dignity How can we go on to promote international exchange about these very fundamental values and practices Shi Maybe we could create some platform for exchanging not our opinions about others because opinion hasn t helped us so far but how we are acting ourselves We Chinese never criticized ourselves because of the Cultural Revolution We Debate30 Robert Bosch Stiftung

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